Water: Drink It

Don’t wait, Hydrate!

Having a headache? Drink water.

Feeling tired? Drink water.

Not losing weight? Drink water.







Do you know that all of these are symptoms of not keeping hydrated? Most of us are guilty of this. Several health issues that an average adult experiences occurs due to lack of sufficient water intake. A vast majority of people jump to the conclusion that taking medicine is the most viable option when dealing with minor health complications such as headaches. But what those people are unaware of is that drinking 8 glasses of water per day can save you from a lifetime of unnecessary medication use and can promote wellness and ease of mind.

World Water Week 2019 took place last week, 25-30 August. It is the leading annual global event for concretely addressing the planet’s water issues and related concerns of international development. This year’s theme was “Water for society – including all”.







This article is to commemorate World water Week and is going to inform you about the most important benefits you need to know about ‘Drinking Water’.

Have you ever felt tired beyond the point where sleeping hasn’t helped? You’re in luck! The benefits of staying hydrated include increased energy levels and heightened brain function. According to Healthline Networks, even mild dehydration (1-3% of body weight) can impair many aspects of mental health. A hard day at work can easily be salvaged by drinking water. So can the mood that has been keeping you down all week! Yes, you guessed right, dehydration can also affect your emotions. 

Another benefit of staying hydrated is weight loss. Most people who try to lose weight have obsessive habits which include high intensity workout sessions and skipping meals which may result in nothing but frustration and only a miniscule change in weight. But what those people are missing is the main key to losing weight and achieving your dream body faster than ever before. Drinking water!

Say goodbye to face masks and skin products that don’t work because water is a natural cleanser, toner and everything else needed in your skincare routine. Nearly everyone has experienced the struggle of waking up to a new pimple on your face that came without a warning, however, what most are unaware of is that the solution isn’t far off. The solution to acne and blemishes is probably sitting in a bottle in your room waiting for you to use to get rid you of all those nasty troubles. Drinking water will prevent blemishes and leave your skin glowing flawlessly.

Well, now you know why water is the best thing you can do for your body, but in case you have trouble actually drinking water, here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Eat more fruits and vegetables which have a high-water content such as cucumber, watermelon, etc.
  • Keep a bottle of water with you at all times. Having water beside you can remind you to stay hydrated.
  • Use an app to help you keep track of how many cups of water you are ingesting per day and this can motivate you to drink more.
  • Drink a cup of water after every bathroom break.

Don’t wait, Hydrate!

Happy World Water Week!

Article written by Eliana Sadarangani, a 12 year old who is passionate about Health and Wellness.


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) start in special cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract. GISTs are uncommon tumors of the GI tract.

More than half of GISTs start in the stomach. Most of the others start in the small intestine, but GISTs can start anywhere along the GI tract. A small number of GISTs start outside the GI tract in nearby areas such as the omentum (an apron-like layer of fatty tissue that hangs over the organs in the abdomen) or the peritoneum (the layer of tissue that lines the organs and walls of the abdomen).










GISTs are different from these other GI tract cancers. They start in different types of cells, need different types of treatment, and have a different prognosis (outlook). This is why doctors need to figure out whether a person with a tumor in the GI tract has a GIST, some other type of cancer, or a non-cancerous condition. 


Unknown. Most people who have a GIST don’t have a family history of the condition. But there are very rare cases where several family members have been diagnosed with a GIST.

People with a condition called neurofibromatosis (NF) have a slightly increased risk of developing a GIST.


The symptoms will depend on the size of the GIST and the location in the digestive tract.

Symptoms may include:

  • tummy (abdominal) discomfort or pain
  • blood in the stools (bowel motions) or vomit
  • anaemia (low level of red blood cells)
  • a painless lump in the abdomen
  • being sick (vomiting)
  • fatigue (tiredness and a feeling of weakness)
  • a high temperature (fever) and sweating at night
  • weight loss.


Screening & Diagnosis:

Early detection is key in any cancer treatment including GISTs. Investigations such as Ultrasound Scan, Endoscopy and Fecal Immunochemical test (FIT) are used in detecting abnormalities along the GI tract. Contact us at Lakeshore Cancer Center for your FIT test. 


Surgery to remove the cancer is usually the main treatment for GIST. Growth inhibitors treatment may also be used to treat GISTs. Growth inhibitors stop cancer cells from growing by blocking signals. They are a drug treatment that’s taken as a tablet.

Research into treatments for GIST is ongoing and advances are being made. Cancer doctors use clinical trials to assess new treatments.


References Cancer.org,  macmillan.org.uk

Bowel Cancer

The large intestine also known as the large bowel is an organ which makes up the digestive system.


The large intestine is divided into 3 sections;

  1.  Appendix and Cecum
  2. Colon  
  3. Rectum

The colon is divided into 4 sections in the following order:

  1. Ascending Colon 
  2. Transverse Colon
  3. Descending Colon
  4. Sigmoid Colon

The colon is responsible for the absorption of the remaining water and electrolytes from the digested food. 

The colon is responsible for the formation of feces and for moving the feces to the rectum. 

The rectum serves as a temporary storage location for feces before defecation occurs.

Bowel cancer also known as Colorectal cancer begins with abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the colon or the rectum resulting in the formation of abnormal tissue growths which are called polyps. 

These polyps are initially noncancerous which means they grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However overtime, polyps can become cancerous.

If cancer begins in any section of the colon, it can be classified as colon cancer. If cancer begins in the rectum, it can be classified as rectal cancer.

The most common type of bowel cancer is adenocarcinoma which begins in the cells lining the walls of the colon or the rectum.


Patients with bowel cancer might not experience any symptoms in the early stage of the disease. Patients only begin to experience significant and bothersome symptoms once tumors have grown and become large in the colon or the rectum or once the cancer has spread out of the colon or the rectum. Symptoms may vary among patients.

  1. A change in bowel habits : diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely
  2. Bright red or very dark blood in the stool
  3. Stools that look narrower or thinner than normal
  4. Discomfort in the abdomen, including frequent gas, bloating, fullness, and cramps
  5. Unexplained and unintentional weight loss 
  6. Constant tiredness or fatigue









There is no known cause for bowel cancer.


  1. Smokers are more likely to develop bowel cancer than non-smokers.
  2. Obese people are more likely to develop bowel cancer.
  3. People who are physically inactive are more likely to develop bowel cancer than active individuals.
  4. Individuals with moderate to heavy alcohol use are at a higher risk of developing bowel cancer.
  5. The chances of being diagnosed with bowel cancer increases with age.
  6. Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  7. Having a genetic condition such as Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, or HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  8. If you have been diagnosed with colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, your risk has been increased.


Guidelines recommend starting routine screening for bowel cancer from age 45 years in order to detect for signs of colon cancer or noncancerous colon polyps and even earlier if there is a family history of bowel cancer or Familial adenomatous polyposis or risk factors. 

The benefit of screening is that cancer is detected early, managed and increases the chance of successful recovery and outcomes. Speak to your doctor about the most appropriate screening in your circumstance. The following screening techniques are used:

  1. Colonoscopy
  2. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) colonography.
  3. Sigmoidoscopy
  4. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT which is more sensitive and more convenient to carry out)
  5. Stool DNA tests


Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, Surgery, Drug Therapy, Targeted therapy and Immunotherapy are all treatment options for bowel cancer. The selection of treatment is made by the doctor based on the type of bowel cancer the patient has, the location of the tumor in the colon and/or rectum, how far the cancer has spread, the speed at which tumors are developing and the overall health of the patient.





Colorectal Cancer – Symptoms and Signs. (2019, March 08). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/colorectal-cancer/symptoms-and-signs

Colorectal Cancer – Screening. (2019, February 25). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/colorectal-cancer/screening

Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/colon-rectal-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

Colorectal Cancer – Types of Treatment. (2019, January 15). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/colorectal-cancer/types-treatment

Large intestine function. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1832-large-intestine-function


Bladder Cancer









The urinary bladder is an organ in the body which stores urine before being released. 

Bladder cancer is an uncontrolled abnormal growth and multiplication of cells in the urinary bladder, which have broken free from the normal mechanisms that keep uncontrolled cell growth in check.

There are three main types of bladder cancer:

  1. Urothelial carcinoma: 95% of bladder cancer diagnosis
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma
  3. Adenocarcinoma


Hematuria is the most common first symptom and is the medical term for blood in your urine. Patients may simply notice streaks of blood in your urine or that their urine is brown as a result of the blood. Hematuria could be painless or painful.

Other symptoms are:

  1. Needing to urinate more frequently 
  2. Sudden urges to urinate 
  3. A burning sensation when passing urine
  4. Pelvic pain

It is important to note that in some cases, colour of urine may not change even when blood is present, and the presence of blood can only be detected under a microscope. 


Smoking of Cigarettes has now recently recognized as the major cause of bladder cancer.

There are other risk factors which have been linked to bladder cancer. 















  1. Men are more likely to have bladder cancer than women. 
  2. White people are at greater risk of bladder cancer than people of other races.
  3. Smokers are 4 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers
  4. The chances of being diagnosed with bladder cancer increases with age
  5. Exposure to toxic chemicals increases risk of bladder cancer 
  6. Bladder stones and infections may increase the risk of bladder cancer. 
  7. Bladder cancer may be more common for people who are paralyzed from the waist down who are required to use urinary catheters and have had many urinary infections.



If you are experiencing the above symptoms, you should visit your family doctor. Your doctor will most likely order the following test to determine the cause for your symptoms and also refer to a specialist known as a Urologist for further assessment;

  1. Urinalysis
  2. Urine cytology
  3. Ultrasound
  4. CT scan/MRI
  5. Cystoscopy and biopsy



Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, Surgery, Drug Therapy and Immunotherapy are all treatment options for bladder cancer. The selection of treatment is made by the doctor based on the type of bladder cancer the patient has, how far it has spread throughout the bladder, the speed at which tumors are developing and the overall health of the patients.

Preventive Measures

Currently there is no screening method for detecting bladder cancer before symptoms are experienced.

However, reducing risk factors and adopting a healthy lifestyle can help with preventive measures such as avoiding cigarette smoking, caution around chemicals and choosing a diet rich in a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables. 

It is important that if you experience the symptoms above to visit your doctor because bladder cancer diagnosed early enough has a higher rate of being successfully treated.


Bladder Cancer – Treatment Options. (2018,July10). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/bladder-cancer/treatment-options

Bladder cancer.(2017,December22). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bladder-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20356109

Bladder cancer. (2017, December 22). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bladder-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20356104

Bladder Cancer – Risk Factors. (2018, March 15). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/bladder-cancer/risk-factors\

Brain Cancer






Brain cancer begins with abnormal and uncontrolled growth cells in the brain resulting in the formation of primary brain Tumors. There are two types of Tumors which can be formed:

Malignant Tumors – arise from cancerous cells. These Tumors grow rapidly, has distinct boundaries and can spread to surrounding brain tissues.

Benign Tumors which arise from non-cancerous cells. These Tumors grow slowly, has irregular boundaries and do not spread to other tissues.

Cancer cells from other parts of the body can spread to the brain, causing the formation of tumors in the brain known as metastatic brain tumors.







All these tumors in the brain are dangerous because they cause damage to healthy brain cells and disrupt with normal brain function. Brain tumors are further classified by where they are located in the brain, how fast the tumors grow and the type of cell which the tumor grows from.


These are general symptoms which experienced by patients with brain cancer however it varies from patient to patient depending on the size, type and location of the tumor

  1. Headaches
  2. Seizures
  3. Stumbling, dizziness, difficulty walking
  4. Speech problems (e.g., difficulty finding the right word)
  5. Vision problems, abnormal eye movements
  6. Weakness on one side of the body
  7. Nausea or vomiting
  8. Fatigue
  9. Drowsiness
  10. Sleep problems
  11. Memory problems

In some cases, there may be no symptom.


There is no known cause for brain cancer.


  • The chances of being diagnosed with brain cancer increases with age.
  • Exposure to certain toxic chemicals.
  • Exposure to radiation therapy.
  • Individuals with weakened immune system.


If you are experiencing the above symptoms, you should visit your family doctor. One or more of these investigations might be ordered by the doctor after examination;

  1. MRI scan
  2. CT scan
  3. Angiogram
  4. Spinal tap
  5. Biopsy
  6. Blood and urine tests
  7. PET scan


Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy and Surgery are all treatment options for brain cancer. The selection of treatment is made by the doctor based on the type and grade of brain cancer the patient has, the location and size of the tumor, the patient’s age and general health.


Brain Tumor – Symptoms and Signs. (2019, March 18). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/brain-tumor/symptoms-and-signs

Mayfield Brain & Spine. (n.d.). Brain tumors: Overview of types, diagnosis, treatment options | Cincinnati, OH Mayfield Brain & Spine. Retrieved from https://mayfieldclinic.com/pe-braintumor.htm

Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/brain-spinal-cord-tumors-adults/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

Tests for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/brain-spinal-cord-tumors-adults/detection-diagnosis-staging/how-diagnosed.html


Melanoma and Skin Cancer








Skin cancer is the commonest of all cancers that affect humans. Cancer occurs when normal cells undergo a change and grow continually without control and invade nearby tissues. There are three major types of skin cancer.  

  1. Basal cell carcinoma
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma
  3. Melanoma (also called Malignant Melanoma)

Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common of skin cancers and are classified as non-melanoma skin cancers. These cancers are less aggressive and so are less likely to spread to other parts of the body however result in permanent blemishes and scars. Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer that tends to spread to other parts of the body, especially when treatment is not started early on. In the overall total of patients diagnosed with skin cancer, patients with Melanoma make up a small but important percentage. Melanoma is the highest cause of death among the three major types of skin cancer.


Cells in the skin produce melanin which is responsible for the skin’s natural colour and protects the body from the sun’s UV light radiation. When important parts of these cells become damaged, they grow abnormally and uncontrollably leading to melanoma.


Skin cancers begin with noticeable and unusual changes to the skin which are initial non-cancerous but over time can become cancerous.

The changes include;

  1. Dysplastic nevi (Abnormal moles)
  2. Actinic keratosis

Dysplastic Nevi: THIS IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME FOR abnormal moles .

Moles are normal growths on the skin which many people have. They normally don’t become cancerous. Normal moles are brown, tan or skin-coloured, oval or round in shape, smooth surfaced and normally do not reach quarter-inch across in size.

Over time, these normal moles can then develop into abnormal moles which are usually irregular in shape with notched or fading borders and larger than a quarter inch across, an indicator of a mole becoming cancerous.

Actinic Keratosis: This is an area of rough skin, red or brown coloured with scaly surfaces. They could be non-cancerous and can go away on their own or become cancerous.











  • Exposure to high levels of radiation.
  • Chemicals such as arsenic and hydrocarbons found in tar, oils and soot.
  • Exposure to high levels of UV light rays either from the sun or from tanning booths or beds.


  1. Skin type – people with very fair skin that freckles and sunburn easily.
  2. Hair and eye colour – people with blond or red hair and blue or green eyes.
  3. History of severe sunburn
  4. Family history of melanoma
  5. The risk factor of melanoma increases with age
  6. Genetic disorders that deplete melanin such as albinism and xeroderma pigmentosum


If you have a mole and you’re concerned it is abnormal, it is best to see a dermatologist. The dermatologist may use a dermatoscope to scan the unusual area on your skin or unusual mole, or take a skin sample from the suspicious area (biopsy) for further analysis.


Treatment for basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas is usually through surgical removal of the cancerous tissues which is usually adequate, but sometimes chemotherapy and radiotherapy also may be needed for squamous cell carcinomas. For melanoma, treatment requires several methods like surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy.


Skin cancer and its treatments may result in changes to skin such as colour changes and scars. Some changes may be nonpermanent and could be present of a short period of time or reduce in intensity with time while others may last a long time or become permanent.

These changes may affect the patient’s body image and it is important that skin cancer patients are made to see themselves in ways that preserve their self-esteem.

The following are ways to make improvements to the appearance of such scars and blemishes;

  • Make-up: This can cover scars or other changes to the skin
  • Reconstructive surgery: This can be used to repair the skin where the cancerous tissue was removed and the area nearby.
  • Prosthesis: A prosthesis is an artificial replacement for a body part. This may be used when reconstructive surgery can’t repair the skin, if the tissues in that area cannot move normally or if reconstructive surgery cannot be done. Prosthesis can be designed specifically for the body part of the person that needs it.


We can be reached on 08099715000


  1. J. Tobias and D. Hochhauser (2015). Cancer and its management, 7th edition. Wiley-Blackwell
  2. V.T. de Vita, T.S. Lawrence and S.A. Rosenberg (2015). Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 10th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
  3. Cancer Research UK, (Accessed May 11, 2019). www.cancerresearchukorg.
  4. Canadian Cancer Society (Accessed May 11, 2019). www.cancer.ca.
  5. WebMD (Accessed May 11, 2019). www.webmd.com

Esophageal Cancer

Also known as Esophageal Carcinoma, Esophageal cancer is a cancer that occurs in the Esophagus – the long narrow tube that runs through the throat to the stomach. Esophagus’ primary function is to help move food from the back of the throat during swallowing, and this tube is lined with cells (squamous cells) which is the starting point for the development of cancer.

Esophageal cancer is classified according to the type of cells that are involved. The type of esophageal cancer determines the type of treatment to be given. Types of esophageal cancer include:

  • Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma begins in the cells of mucus-secreting glands in the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma occurs most often in the lower portion of the esophagus.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: The squamous cells are flat, thin cells that line the surface of the esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma occurs most often in the upper and middle portions of the esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent esophageal cancer worldwide.
  • Other rare types: Some rare forms of esophageal cancer include small cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, melanoma and choriocarcinoma.

Esophageal cancer occurs more in men, and is currently the sixth most common cancer in our world today, with fewer than a hundred thousand occurring in Nigeria every year. Most common risk factors for this disease are;    

  • tobacco use,
  • alcohol intake,
  • some nutritional habits like not eating enough fruits & vegetables
  • Obesity. Other factors include
  • previous history of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD),
  • barrett’s esophagus (precancerous changes in the cells of the esophagus),
  • achalasia (difficulty swallowing because of an esophageal sphincter that won’t relax) and
  • undergoing previous radiation treatment to the chest and abdomen.

Most common signs and symptoms of Esophageal cancer include;

  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Chest pain, pressure or burning
  • Worsening indigestion or heartburn
  • Coughing or hoarseness.

Although early esophageal cancer has no signs and symptoms, screening for esophageal cancer isn’t done routinely except for patients with Barrett’s esophagus because of a lack of other easily identifiable high-risk groups. Many steps can be taken to prevent this cancer and they include;

  • Quit smoking. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about strategies for quitting. Medications and counseling are available to help you quit.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables. Add a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables to your diet.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight or obese, talk to your doctor about strategies to help you lose weight. Aim for a slow and steady weight loss of 1 or 2 pounds a week.

Thanks for reading. We can be reached on 08099715000 . If you any cancer related question or you just want to talk to someone, we are here.


  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/esophageal-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20356084

Testicular Cancer

What Is Testicular Cancer?
Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancerous and spread to other parts of the body.

What is Testicular Cancer? Cancer that starts in the testicles is called Testicular Cancer.

To understand this cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the testicles.
Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis that produces sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.
Compared with other types of cancer, Testicular Cancer is rare. But is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35.

What are Testicles?
Testicles (also called testes; a single testicle is called a testis) are part of the male reproductive system. The 2 organs are each normally a little smaller than a golf ball in adult males. They’re held within a sac of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum hangs under the base of the penis.

Testicles have 2 main functions:
 They make male hormones (androgens) such as testosterone.
 They make sperm, the male cells needed to fertilize a female egg cell to start a pregnancy. Sperm cells are made in long, thread-like tubes inside the testicles called
Seminiferous tubules.

Types of Testicular cancer:
The testicles are made up of many types of cells, each of which can develop into one or more types of cancer. It’s important to know the type of cell the cancer started in and what kind of cancer it is because they differ in how they’re treated and in their prognosis (outlook).

Doctors can tell what type of testicular cancer you have by looking at the cells under a microscope.

Germ cell tumors: More than 90% of cancers of the testicle start in cells known as germ cells.
These are the cells that make sperm. The main types of germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the testicles are seminomas and non-seminomas.

A.) Seminomas: Seminomas tend to grow and spread more slowly than non-seminomas. The 2 main sub-types of these tumors are classical (or typical) seminomas and
spermatocytic seminomas.

I.) Classical seminoma: More than 95% of seminomas are classical. These usually
occur in men between 25 and 45.
II.) Spermatocytic seminoma: This rare type of seminoma tends to occur in older men.
(The average age is about 65.) Spermatocytic tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less likely to spread to other parts of the body than classical seminomas.

Some seminomas can increase blood levels of a protein called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG can be checked with a simple blood test and is considered a tumor marker for certain types of testicular cancer.

B.) Non-seminomas: These types of germ cell tumors usually occur in men between their late teens and early 30s. The 4 main types of non-seminoma tumors are embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:
 A lump or enlargement in either testicle,
 A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum,
 A dull ache in the abdomen or groin,
 A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum,
 Pain or discomfort in a testicle or scrotum,
 Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts and,
 Back pain.

Risk factors for Testicular Cancer include:
 Family history of the disease, and previous history of testicular cancer.
 An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism): The testes usually descend into the scrotum
before birth, in cases where they don’t, those men with undescended testes are at a
greater risk of testicular cancer than men whose testes descended normally.
 Abnormal testicle development: There are conditions that can result in the abnormal
development of the testicles such as Klinefelter syndrome and such conditions may
increase your risk of testicular cancer.
 Age: Testicular cancer is more common among men aged between of 13-35 years.
 Race: Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men.

Treatment for Testicular Cancer:
The three basic types of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Surgery is performed by Urologists; radiation therapy is administered by Radiation Oncologists; and chemotherapy is the work of Medical Oncologists. In most patients with testicular cancer, the disease is cured readily with minimal long-term morbidity. While treatment success depends on
the stage, the average survival rate after five years is around 95%, and stage 1 cancer cases, if monitored properly, have essentially a 100% survival rate.
Treatment Clinical trials have also refined doctors’ approaches to treating these cancers. For example, studies have found factors that help predict which patients have a particularly good prognosis and may not need lymph node surgery or radiation therapy.

Studies also have found unfavorable prognostic factors that suggest certain patients may benefit from more intense treatment. New drugs and new drug combinations are being tested for patients with testicular
cancer that comes back or doesn’t respond to treatment. And high-dose chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant is being studied in men who have tumors with a poor prognosis. Other studies are using robotic-assisted surgery to remove lymph nodes after chemotherapy. It appears to be a safe option instead of standard “open” surgery, but more research is needed to show this and to see if there are other benefits.

Boccellino M, Vanacore D, Zappavigna S, et al. Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic
factors. Oncotarget. 2017;8(61):104654-104663. Loveday C, Litchfield K, Levy M, et al.
Validation of loci at 2q14.2 and 15q21.3 as risk factors for testicular cancer. Oncotarget.
2017;9(16):12630-12638. Singh A, Chatterjee S, Bansal P, Bansal A, Rawal S. Robot-assisted
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Feasibility and outcome in postchemotherapy residual
mass in testicular cancer. Indian J Urol. 2017;33(4):304-309. Tselos A, Moris D, Tsilimigras DI,
et al. Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy in Testicular Cancer Treatment: A
Systematic Review. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2018 Feb 23. Last Medical Review: May
17, 2018 Last Revised: May 17, 2018
1.) www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/what-is-cancer.html
2.) www.cancer.org/cancer/testicular-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/howdiagnosed.html
4.) www.cancer.org/cancer/non-hodgkin-lymphoma.html
5.) www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children.html

Cancer Myths, Misconceptions and Facts

Breast Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a woman either has a spontaneous abortion late in her pregnancy or a stillbirth, she can develop breast cancer, because the milk production meant for the child can spoil and cause cancer in the breast.

The Facts: More breast milk is made whenever milk is removed from the breast. The more the baby feeds, the more the milk the mother will make. In the absence of demand from the baby, the mother’s milk supply eventually dries up. Moreover, human breast milk is always fresh and cannot spoil in the breast.

Misconception #2: If you wear black brassieres often, you are more likely to get breast cancer because the black-coloured underwear will radiate more heat than other lightly-coloured underwear.

The Facts: There is no scientific evidence to suggest that wearing brassieres -black or not – can lead to the development of breast cancer. The study that investigated the link between wearing a brassiere and breast cancer, showed no real difference in risk between women who wore a brassiere and women who didn’t wear a brassiere.

Misconception #3: Only women can get breast cancer.

The Facts: Although breast cancer is most common in women, it also occurs in men too. Men also have small breast tissue and can develop cancer but unlike women they tend to delay going to the doctor until they have severe symptoms.

Misconception #4: When someone punches you in the breast, you can develop breast cancer in the injured breast.

The Facts: An injury to the breast/chest area will not cause breast cancer, however, depending on the severity of the injury, swelling and discoloration may occur, and in some cases scar tissue in the breast is formed, when the body naturally repairs the damaged fatty breast tissue.

Misconception #5: Women that store their money and cell phones in their brassieres, can develop breast cancer later on.

The Facts: There is not enough information or data available to establish a relationship between putting one’s phone in contact with the breasts for long periods and developing breast cancer.

Misconception #6: Men sucking and fondling women’s breasts helps prevent breast cancer.

The Facts: There is no scientific evidence to indicate that sucking, squeezing or fondling a woman’s breasts could prevent breast lumps or breast cancer. However, in some cases, men are able to help detect lumps in their partner’s breasts at an early stage through regular sucking and fondling of the breasts.  

Misconception #7: When women place ants on the breasts to “cause growth,” they can develop breast cancer later on.

The Facts: This is simply not true. Many factors can increase one’s risk of developing breast cancer, such as aging, being overweight, having a family history of the disease, among others, but ant-bites are not one of them. Also, there is no evidence that suggests that placing ants on the breast accelerates breast growth in females; we know that the rate of breast growth has more to do with age, genetics and weight than any other thing.

Misconception #8: Using antiperspirant deodorants can increase your risk of developing breast cancer.

The Facts: There is no evidence to suggest that using anti-perspirant deodorants can increase one’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Lung Cancer:

Misconception #1: Only smoking can cause lung cancer.

The Facts: Tobacco smoking is by far the leading cause of lung cancer; it is responsible for about 80% of lung cancer deaths. However, lung cancer can also occur in non-smokers when they are exposed to radon, second-hand smoke, air pollution, asbestos, diesel exhaust fumes and other air pollutants and when they have certain DNA mutations that predispose them to lung cancer. Research shows that either active or passive smoking increases ones risk of having any kind of cancer generally.

Misconception #2: If you smoke and then follow it up with alcohol, it flushes out the harmful effects of tobacco thus reducing your risk of lung cancer.

The Facts: Alcohol cannot flush out the effects of tobacco on the lungs. In fact, this combination – consuming alcohol on a daily basis and smoking – can further increase the risk of cancers in the aero-digestive tract- the lips, mouth, larynx, pharynx, throat, oesophagus and colon.

Prostate Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a man is not sexually active in his younger years, when they turn 40, they develop prostate cancer because their prostate gland shrinks.

The Facts: This is not true. Researchers speculate that men who have sex more often “may be more likely to acquire a sexually transmitted disease, which may infect the prostate, cause inflammation and other damage, and increase the risk of prostate cancer.” However, based on two large well-conducted studies, men who reported 21 or more ejaculations per month had one-fourth the risk of prostate cancer compared with men reporting fewer ejaculations per month at all ages. It is important to note though that similar studies did not reach the same conclusions.

Skin Cancer:

Misconception #1: Dark-skinned (black) people cannot develop skin cancer.

The Facts: Although black people or people of colour are less susceptible to UV damage due to greater amounts of melanin (a protective pigment that gives our skin, hair and eyes colour) that dark skin produces, they can still develop skin cancer. Dangerous skin cancers such as the fast moving and highly virulent acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and a fast-spreading form of squamous cell carcinoma are more common among darker-skinned people. Although skin cancer is much more common among lighter-skinned people, it tends to be deadlier among people of colour.

Cervical Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a lady has multiple sexual partners, she will most likely develop cervical cancer later on in life.

The Facts: It is indeed true that the sexually transmitted virus, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99% of cervical cancer cases in women and having multiple sexual partners increases the risk of contracting HPV due to greater exposure to the virus. However, a woman can protect herself from the virus by taking the HPV vaccine (between the ages of 9 to 26 years) and also through the practice of safe sex; using condoms and other protective equipment during oral sex. Also, from the age of 21, women are advised to do a cervical cytology test (the liquid-based cytology test is most accurate) every 3 years, to detect any pre-cancerous changes in the cervix.

Some more general misconceptions about cancer include:

Misconception #1: Cancer only affects older people.

The Facts: The risk of developing cancer does increase with age due to age-related DNA changes that make normal cells more susceptible to turning into cancer cells. Thus, cancer is more common in people over the age of 50 years. However, for every 100 people diagnosed with cancer, 10 people will fall between the ages of 25 and 49 and 1 person will be under the age of 24, so anybody can develop cancer. At whatever age, living more healthily can help stack the odds against cancer.

Misconception #2: Cancer is caused by bad diets and eating well guarantees a cancer-free life. Healthy people cannot develop cancer.

The Facts: While maintaining a healthy lifestyle through healthy eating and regular exercise, can general reduce the risk of cancer, other factors such as genetic predisposition can further increase the risk of cancer even in the presence of a healthy lifestyle.

Misconception #3: Cancer makes people bald/If your hair is falling out it means you have cancer.

The Facts: One of the side effects of some cancer chemotherapy treatments is hair loss. However, hair loss is a side effect of chemotherapy and not the disease itself.

Also, here are some out-of-scope misconceptions that are not only untrue but also completely baseless and lacking in scientific evidence:

  • Apple juice cause cancer: There is no direct link between apple juice consumption and developing cancer. However, since apple juice has a high sugar content, like other sugary drinks, it should be consumed in moderation to maintain good health.
  • Cancer is communicable: Cancer is a NOT contagious. It might seem like cancer might happen more often in certain families, but this does not mean that the family members spread cancer to each other. It can be due to several reasons; for one, cancer-causing genes can be passed down through familial inheritance, and another reason is that families might sometimes share a similar unhealthy lifestyle or they might be exposed to the same cancer-causing agents in their environment such as tobacco smoke and therefore might be more predisposed to having cancer in the family.
  • Rich people are predisposed to having cancer because they use dryers to dry their hands after washing: This misconception is completely unfounded. There is no link between the use of hand dryers and developing cancer. Hand dryers are designed to blow hot or cool air to dry one’s hands after washing them.
  • Introverts are more likely to develop cancer than extroverts: There is no evidence for this.  
  • “Everything” causes cancer: “Everything” does not cause cancer, however, factors such as genetic predisposition, low physical activity, unhealthy diets, smoking, exposure to radiation and carcinogenic environmental pollutants, and aging can increase one’s risk for developing cancer.
  • Apricot kernels can prevent and treat cancer: Apricot seeds contain a bioactive compound, amygdalin whose synthetic version of amygdalin, gained popularity in the 1970s as a cancer treatment but because of a lack of clinical research evidence that laetrile is effective against cancer or can be used safely, it has not been approved as a treatment for cancer.
  • Moringa seeds, aloe-Vera and beetroot can cure cancer: All these natural plants have bioactive compounds that have anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties, however there is not enough research on their ability to cure cancer.

A few others are:

  • Ketogenic diets can cure cancer: A Ketogenic diet is a low-carb and high fat diet which encourages a process known as ketosis where the body burns fat to make energy instead of sugar thus releasing ketones into the body. Many people believe that sugar is the main source of fuel which feeds cancer, however, ketogenic diets are high fat so they can lead to obesity which is a risk factor for cancer. Ketogenic diet has repeatedly been shown NOT to cure cancer as a monotherapy in human.  However, healthy diet, screening and early detection can help tackle cancer.
  • Putting your laptop on your lap for prolonged periods causes cancer: It may cause some level of exposure to EMFs (Electric and Magnetic Fields), but it is definitely not a risk factor for cancer. Heat from the laptop, however, can burnt the skin thigh.
  • If you leave a bottle of water in your car overnight and you drink it the next day, you can increase your risk of developing cancer: There is no evidence to suggest that drinking plastic bottled water left in a hot car can increase one’s risk of developing cancer. However, researchers advise against drinking plastic bottled water left in a hot car because there has been some evidence to suggest that hot temperatures of cars could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled water.

Thanks for reading. We are available to talk to you on

kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer – is also called Renal Cancer – Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tubules in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma and occurs in 4 out of 5 cases of kidney cancer and is also called renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma. Other types of kidney cancer include- transitional cell cancers of the renal pelvis and Wilms tumor of the kidney occurring in children.

The good news is that most of kidney cancers are found before they spread (metastasize) to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.

We don’t know the causes of kidney cancer. But certain factors appear to increase the risk of getting kidney cancer. For example, kidney cancer occurs most often in people older than age 40.

These are some other risk factors for kidney cancer:

  • Smoking. This applies to cigars or cigarettes
  • Being male. However, several case reports on renal cancer in Nigeria report a higher female preponderance.
  • Being obese. Extra weight may cause changes to sex hormones that increase risk.
  • Using non-aspirin, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) for a long time. 
  • Having advanced kidney disease or being on long-term dialysis.
  • Having certain genetic conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma. In rare cases long standing sickle cell nephropathy is a risk.
  • Having a family history of kidney cancer. The risk is especially high in siblings.
  • Being exposed to certain chemicals, such as asbestos, cadmium, benzene, organic solvents, or certain herbicides
  • Having high blood pressure. Doctors don’t know whether high blood pressure or medication used to treat it is the source of the increased risk.
  • Being black. 
  • Having lymphoma. For an unknown reason, there is an increased risk of kidney cancer in patients with lymphoma.

What Are the Symptoms of Kidney Cancer?

  • Hematuria (Blood in the urine)
  • Abdominal mass
  • Abdominal pain
  • A loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Leg swelling

Symptoms of metastasis include;

  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing up blood
  • Bone pain

Sometimes the presentation of kidney cancer includes what is called paraneoplastic syndromes. This means that signs, symptoms and complications are not directly attributable to the kidney cancer but are associated with it. For instance

  • Hypercalcemia and its complications
  • Increased prolactin production and in men breast growth and in some cases, milk letdown.
  • Increased production of red blood cells presenting with a PCV >54% due to abnormally increased production of erythropoietin by the kidney.
  • In rarer cases there is new onset impaired glucose tolerance or worsening of existing diabetes mellitus


To confirm a diagnosis of kidney cancer, a thorough physical exam, health history, and tests are required.

Testing required includes:

  • Urinalysis
  • Renal function tests.
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) highlighting any tumors.
  • Ultrasound to identify simple versus solid or complex masses.
  • A CT scan with and without contrast. CT scans have replaced IVP and ultrasound as a tool for diagnosing kidney cancer.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without contrast.

Most of the time a diagnosis can be made without a biopsy. Sometimes, a biopsy will be done to confirm the diagnosis. A doctor may use a needle biopsy to remove a sample of tissue, which is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells. The biopsy may also tell the grade of the cancer. Often the surgeon will simply remove the entire tumor and then have a sample of tissue examined.

Once a diagnosis is made additional testing is required to assess the stage of the cancer. For this, a CT scan or MRI, chest X-ray or a bone scan can see if the cancer has spread to other organs like the liver, brain, bones or surrounding tissues.

Stages of Kidney Cancer

Prognosis depends on the patients general health, as well as the grade and stage of kidney cancer.

Stage I

  • A tumor 7 centimeters or smaller, limited to the kidney

Stage II

  • A tumor larger than 7 centimeters, limited to the kidney

Stage III

  • A tumor that is in the kidney and in at least one nearby lymph node
  • A tumor that is in the main renal vessel(s) and may also be in nearby lymph node
  • A tumor that is in perinephric fat and may also involve nearby lymph nodes
  • A tumor that extends into major veins or perinephric tissues, but not into the ipsilateral adrenal gland and not beyond Gerota’s fascia

Stage IV

  • Cancer has spread beyond the fatty layer of tissue around the kidney, and it may also be in nearby lymph nodes
  • Cancer may have spread to other organs, such as the bowel, pancreas, or lungs
  • Cancer has spread beyond Gerota’s fascia (including contiguous extension into the ipsilateral adrenal gland)

Treatments for Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer is one of the more common cancers to undergo spontaneous remission. However, the incidence is quite low (approximately 0.5%).

There are several standard types of treatment for kidney cancer. In most cases, surgery is the first step. Even if surgery removes the entire tumor, residual disease may be addressed with non-surgical approaches.

Surgery for kidney cancer

The type you have depends on how advanced the cancer is.

  • Radical nephrectomy removes the kidney, adrenal gland, and surrounding tissue. It also often removes nearby lymph nodes. It is the most common surgery for kidney cancer and can now be done through a small incision with a laparoscope.
  • Simple nephrectomy removes the kidney only.
  • Partial nephrectomy removes the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue around it. This procedure is used for patients with smaller tumors (less than 4 cm) or in those patients in which a radical nephrectomy might hurt the other kidney.

If surgery can’t remove the kidney cancer, other options to help destroy the tumor include;

  • Cryotherapy.
  • Radiofrequency ablation.
  • Arterial embolization involves inserting material into an artery that leads to the kidney. This blocks blood flow to the tumor. This procedure may be done to help shrink the tumor before surgery.

Biologic therapy for kidney cancer

This therapy uses the immune system to fight cancer by boosting, directing, or restoring the body’s natural defenses. Substances for biologic therapy are made by the body or in a lab. Examples of biologic therapy for metastatic kidney cancer include interferon alpha or interleukin-2. Other biologics that have been used in treatment of renal cancer include Bevacizumab, Sorafenib and Sunitnib. More recently, Nivolumab is approved as a biologic for treating renal cancer. There are many other new immunotherapies being actively studied for kidney cancer.

Targeted therapy for kidney cancer

This therapy uses drugs or other substances to find and target cancer cells with less toxicity to normal cells. One type of targeted therapy is anti-angiogenic agents. These keep blood vessels from feeding a tumor, causing it to shrink or stop growing. Another type of targeted agent is known as multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These are oral drugs that block an enzyme pathway which allows cancer cells to grow. A third type of targeted therapy is known as m-TOR inhibitors such as Everolimus and Temsirolimus. There are two of these drugs available, one oral and one by IV. They block a pathway which allows blood vessels to help tumor cells grow. Each of these drugs has a unique place in the management of advanced kidney cancer.

Radiation therapy for kidney cancer

Often used to help with symptoms of kidney cancer or in patients who cannot have surgery, this treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or halt their growth. External radiation therapy sends radiation to the cancer from a machine outside the body.

Chemotherapy for kidney cancer

This therapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from multiplying. Less effective for kidney cancer than for other types of cancer, chemotherapy is mostly used for a certain type of kidney cancer in which there spindle cells (sarcomatoid variant).

This article was written by Dr Egbuna of Kidney Solutions Center, Nigeria www.kidney-solutions.com

Thanks for reading. Please get in touch with us on Instagram.com/lcccares or give us a call on 08099715000

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and are an important part of the immune system. The immune system is made up of several types of cells that work together to fight infections and other diseases. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) are one of the main types of white blood cells in the immune system and include T cells and B cells.

Lymphocytes are in many areas of the body, such as blood stream, bone marrow, intestines, and lymph nodes. When B cells respond to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies (also called immunoglobulins) that help the body attack and kill germs. 

Multiple myeloma is characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells and a subsequent production of abnormal proteins by the malignant plasma cells called M protein, which builds up throughout the body and causes organ damage.

Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma include:

  • Bone pain
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Anaemia
  • Renal failure
  • Nausea, constipation and loss of appetite
  • Mental fogginess and confusion
  • Infections (often pneumococcal)
  • Weight Loss
  • Weakness and malaise

There are certain factors that increase one’s risk of developing multiple myeloma:

  • Being older than 65 years.
  • Being male
  • Having black ethnicity or lineage
  • Family history of multiple myeloma
  • Personal history of monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS): MGUS is not considered myeloma but in some cases, it can be a pre-malignant condition, because some people with MGUS will eventually develop into cancers such as multiple myelomas and lymphomas.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the bone marrow. healthy plasma cells in the bone marrow mutate and multiply uncontrollably. Myeloma cells suppress the growth of healthy cells that make blood. malignant plasma cells produce a paraprotein (inactive antibody or M protein)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

Tests and procedures used to diagnose multiple myeloma include:

  • Serum and urine assessment for monoclonal proteins.
  • Serum free light chain assay.
  • Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy
  • Serum beta2-microglobulin, albumin and lactose dehydrogenase measurements
  • Standard metaphase cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization
  • Imaging: skeletal survey (CT scan, X-ray, MRI and PET scan).

Treatment options include:

  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Corticosteroids
  • Bone Marrow Transplant
  • Radiation Therapy

Supportive and Complementary Care

Supportive and complementary care techniques are used alongside standard care to improve the overall patient experience. These are some supportive approaches that many patients with multiple myeloma find useful during the course of their disease/treatment:

  • Acupuncture
  • Emotional health support (such as counseling and support groups)
  • Exercise programs
  • Massage
  • Nutritional counseling
  • Physical therapy
  • Relaxation techniques (such as meditation, hypnosis, and yoga)
  • Spiritual health support
  • Support for practical concerns (including financial assistance, transportation to and from treatments, etc)

Please speak with your healthcare team, if you feel you would benefit from any of these supportive care approaches.

We can be reached on 08099715000 or on Instagram.com/Lcccares


  1. https://www.webmd.com/cancer/multiple-myeloma-symptoms-causes-treatment#1
  2. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/multiple-myeloma/about/what-is-multiple-myeloma.html
  3. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-myeloma/symptoms-causes/syc-20353378
  4. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204369-overview
  5. https://themmrf.org/multiple-myeloma/treatment-options/supportive-care/


What is the Purpose of the Gallbladder and Bile Duct in the human body?

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped pouch that sits underneath the liver. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, a dark-green or yellowish brown made by the liver that helps digest fats in the small intestine and in response to signals, the gallbladder contracts and squeezes the stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts.

Bile ducts transport bile from the liver and gallbladder through the pancreas to the duodenum, a part of the small intestine. Bile ducts within the liver join together to form one main bile duct outside the liver, which carries the bile to the small intestine. The main bile duct is called the common hepatic duct and it joins the gall bladder via the cystic duct; the combined duct is known as the common bile duct.

What happens when cancer develops in the Gallbladder and/or in the Bile Duct?

Gallbladder and bile duct cancers are rare malignancies that have variable incidence. In Nigeria, gallbladder cancer ranks number eight among all the gastrointestinal cancers seen.

Most primary gallbladder and bile duct cancers are adenocarcinomas; they are growths that begin in the mucus glands that line the insides of the gallbladder and bile duct.

 Bile duct cancers also known as cholangiocarcinomas and can occur in the main bile duct outside liver (extrahepatic) or within the liver (intrahepatic). One in ten bile duct cancers develop as intrahepatic cancers in the small duct branches within the liver.

  What are some symptoms of Gallbladder Cancer and Bile Duct Cancer?

Gallbladder and Bile duct cancer does not usually cause signs or symptoms until later in the course of the disease, when the cancer has spread to other organs, but sometimes symptoms can appear sooner and lead to an early diagnosis.


With bile duct cancer, the symptoms arise when the bile duct becomes obstructed. Such symptoms include:

  • Jaundice; a condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow, urine darkens, and the colour of the stool becomes lighter,
  • Itching of the skin,
  • Abdominal or belly pain,
  • Loss of appetite/ weight loss,
  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Fever

Symptoms of Gallbladder Cancer include:

  • Abdominal pain, particularly in the upper right position of the abdomen,
  • Abdominal bloating,
  • Fever,
  • Unintentional weight loss,
  • Nausea,
  • Jaundice

What are the risk factors for developing Gallbladder Cancer and/or Bile Duct cancer?

Risk factors for gallbladder cancer include:

  • Gallstones and inflammation: Gallstones are the greatest risk factors for gallbladder cancer and up to 90% of people diagnosed with gallbladder cancer also have gallstones and chronic inflammation of the gallbladder.
  • Chronic or persistent typhoid infection: People who are chronically or persistently infected with Salmonella (causes Typhoid) are six times more likely to develop gallbladder cancer than those not infected.
  • Gallbladder polyps: Polyps are growths that protrude from the gallbladder’s mucous membranes; they are sometimes precancerous and can progress into cancer.
  • Porcelain Gallbladder: This occurs when the gallbladder becomes covered in calcium deposits, resembling porcelain ceramic.
  • Obesity
  • Family history

Risk factors for Bile Duct Cancer include:

  • Ulcerative Colitis: This condition causes inflammation of the large intestine and is often associated with inflammation of bile duct.
  • Biliary Parasites: Food or waterborne parasites in the bile duct increase the risk of developing cancer of the bile duct.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Although this a common risk factor for liver cancer, it is also considered a risk factor for Bile Duct Cancer.
  • Smoking: Intrahepatic bile duct cancer is more common along heavy smokers.
  • Diabetes

How do you diagnose Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancers?

  To confirm the diagnosis of Gallbladder and Bile Duct cancers, assess disease stage and plan the appropriate course of treatment, the patient will likely have or more of the following:

Blood Tests:

  • Liver function tests
  • Tumor Marker Tests


Some imaging techniques used to determine the exact size and location of the newly diagnosed gallbladder and bile duct tumours are as follows:

  • Ultrasound Exam
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
  • Laparoscopy
  • Angiographic Computer Tomography (CT) Scan

It is important to speak to your healthcare provider if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above, to determine the type of testing that will be done and after a diagnosis has been confirmed, the best treatment plan.

You can call 08099715000 or get in touch with us on Instagram.com/Lcccares  for a consultation or to make any other enquiries.

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Cervical cancer occurs when the cells of the cervix grow abnormally and invade other tissues and organs of the body. When it is invasive, this cancer affects the deeper tissues of the cervix and may spread to other parts (metastasis), most notably to the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.

Cervical cancer is slow progressing and so its progression through precancerous changes provides opportunities for prevention, early detection, and treatment.

According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 570,000 new cases in 2018 representing 6.6% of all female cancers.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer accounts for 22.5% of all cancer cases in women, and the majority of women who develop cervical cancer live in rural areas.


Cervical cancer begins with abnormal changes in the cervical tissue and the risk of developing these abnormal changes is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). More than 99% of cervical cancers occur in women who have been previously infected with HPV. HPV is a group of viruses and there are more than 100 different types. About 15 types of HPV are considered high-risk for cervical cancer. The two types known to have the highest risk are HPV 16 and HPV 18, which cause about 7 out of every 10 cervical cancers. High-risk types of HPV are thought to contain genetic material that can be passed into the cells of the cervix. This material begins to disrupt the normal workings of the cells, which can eventually cause them to reproduce uncontrollably, leading to the growth of a cancerous tumour.

Other factors that increase the risk of developing cervical cancer are early sexual contact, multiple sexual partners and taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills) especially for longer than five years, because they already lead to greater exposure to HPV.

Cigarette smoking is another risk factor for the development of cervical cancer because the harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke interact with cells in the cervix, causing pre-cancerous that may progress to cancer over time.







– Cancer of the cervix usually takes many years to develop. Before it does, the cells in the cervix often show changes known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or less commonly, cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN)

– CIN and CGIN are pre-cancerous conditions, that may not pose an immediate threat to a person’s health, but they can potentially develop into cancer in the future.

The purpose of screening is to detect precancerous changes; women who are found to have abnormalities on screening need follow-up, diagnosis and treatment, in order to prevent the development of cancer or to treat cancer at an early stage.

Cervical screening makes it possible to find and treat cervical cancer in the early stages. Cervical cancer screening can involve testing for HPV, the Pap smear test, liquid-based cytology and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). For the liquid-based cytology (LBC), a speculum is placed inside the vagina and the doctor scrapes the cervix with a small brush, which collects cervical cells for lab testing. A similar process is also used for the Pap smear test.

At Lakeshore Cancer Center (LCC), we offer the LBC for cervical cancer screening in the clinical facility and VIA at outreach screening events. The sample collection process can be a very uncomfortable experience for many women, especially those who are psychologically unprepared for such an invasion of privacy and also for women who feel slight pain and/or discomfort with the insertion of the speculum. According to Nurse Uche, head of oncology nurses here at LCC, it is important to explain the process carefully to each patient beforehand making sure to detail every single step, in order to make the sample collection process a more comfortable one. In addition, introducing relaxation techniques such as breathing exercises, can make a world of difference.   

Between ages 21 and 29, it is recommended that women get a Pap smear or LBC at least every three years, especially if they are sexually active.

For women aged 30 to 65 years, the American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that a Pap smear test or LBC combined with an HPV DNA test be done every 5 years or the pap smear test alone every 3 years.

Women older than 65 years who have had regular screening with normal and clear results in the last 10 years can stop screening. However for women whose tests have shown a serious pre-cancer within the last 20 years, such as severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), screening should continue until 20 years after the date when the pre-cancerous conditions were discovered.

Women with a higher risk of developing cervical cancer – this includes women with suppressed immune system due to HIV or women who have received organ transplants, should undergo screening more often than others.  

Avoidance of HPV infection is important in the prevention of precancerous and cancerous changes in the cervix.

  • There are now vaccines available to protect women and men from HPV and thus reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer in women. Lakeshore Cancer Center (LCC) administers HPV vaccines to guard against cervical cancer.
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that routine HPV vaccination be initiated for both males and females between the ages of 9-26 years. It is important to ask your healthcare provider about your eligibility for the HPV vaccine before taking it.

It is important for women to screen for cervical cancer regularly, contact us at Lakeshore Cancer Center for cervical screening, HPV testing and vaccination and other inquiries.

Thanks for reading. You can share this post with your friends and get intouch with us.

Please call 08099715000 or send us a message info@Lakeshorecancercenter.org or on Instagram.com/Lcccares











Ntekim A. Cervical Cancer in Sub Sahara Africa, Topics on Cervical Cancer With an Advocacy for Prevention. Intech, 2012.

Cancer and Hope

“Dealing with it is the operative word. I found myself at seven years not battling it. Not struggling with it. Not suffering from it. Not breaking under the burden of it, but dealing with it.” -Michael J. Fox

Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and although this is a frightening statistic, hearing the words, “You have cancer,” for the first time, is an even more frightening feeling. For many people who first hear these three life-changing words in their doctor’s office, images of despair and anguish immediately flood their minds as they come to the realization that their world has suddenly changed without their permission. For others, they begin to despise their bodies – a sense of betrayal washes over them because it would seem that the bodies, which they have faithfully relied on for many years to function and stay healthy, have now turned against them by growing cancer.

It is truly an uphill battle for many from the moment they receive the news of their cancer diagnosis; many people not only have to navigate through multiple chemotherapy and radiation treatments, managing physical pain and other negative side-effects of the disease as they go along, but they also have to battle strong emotions such as anxiety and depression, usually associated with fear of the disease outcome. This is where an important four-letter word comes in; a word that although may not change the outcome of the disease, helps the cancer warrior deal with the reality of his or her diagnosis and the life changes that come with it and be able to make peace with the situation regardless of the outcome. That four-letter word is Hope.

The Oxford dictionary defines hope as “a feeling of expectation and desire for a particular thing to happen.” Hope is the foundation on which many people believe that something positive may happen soon; it is an expectancy, an optimism of some sort in a world teeming with troubles and disappointments. For cancer patients, having hope is essential. And this hope may not necessarily come in the form of expecting total recovery and remission, it can also be in the seemingly little achievements, such as making it through another gruelling chemotherapy treatment or getting one’s appetite back after some months and being able to eat an ice cream once again. Having hope can also simply translateinto choosing to continue to enjoy the pleasures of life even in the midst of what feels like a storm.

Furthermore, it is imperative that the newly diagnosed is offered hope from the very beginning. Doctors can do this by offering cancer patients and their families the service of a therapist, who can help them process their emotions at each stage and keep them hopeful through the highs and lows of their cancer treatment.

Cancer support groups also play an important role in keeping hope alive; talking with other cancer patients weekly, exchanging resources and tips and generally interacting with people who “get it” can be an encouraging and uplifting experience. Some also find that their hope is strengthened and they are able to make peace with their diagnosis by tapping back into spirituality and religion. In the journey to recovery, it is essential for the cancer warrior to know that he or she is not walking alone and apart from family support, there are many resources available to make the journey less bleak.

Choosing to hope daily despite the reality of one’s diagnosis is an extremely courageous feat; it may not be easy at first and if perhaps one loses hope momentarily, of a better and more enjoyable future, in the words of author, Barbara Kingsolver, they “get to start over in the morning (as) hope is a renewable option.”

Thanks for reading. You can get in touch with us as regards everything Cancer from Prevention to Treatment to Support Groups etc.

We can be reached on 08099715000 or Instagram.com/Lcccares





lakeshore cancer center lagos


Lung cancer also known as Lung Carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs; usually in the cells that line the air passages. The abnormal cells do not develop into healthy lung tissues, they divide rapidly and form tumors. About 1,370,000 deaths had been recorded worldwide due to rapid spread or growth of lung cancer or lung carcinoma.

Continue reading “LUNG CANCER”


CANCER is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and destroy body tissues.

STOMACH is the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the oesophagus to the small intestine.

STOMACH CANCER begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years.

Continue reading “STOMACH CANCER”

Hepatitis and Liver Cancer

Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis can be defined as the inflammation of the liver. Viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is recognized as the usual cause of liver cancer. There are 5 different viruses that can cause hepatitis. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are spread through human waste, contaminated water, and food. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis D are spread through an infected individual’s body fluids or blood. Vaccines have the potential to protect against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. However, no vaccines are available for Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E.

Continue reading “Hepatitis and Liver Cancer”


Leukemias are the most common childhood cancers. They account for about 30% of all cancers in children.
Leukemia is the cancer of the blood cells caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells body. They over crowd the red blood cells and platelets body needs to be healthy. All those extra white blood cells don’t work right, and that causes problems. There is really nothing you can do to prevent leukemia.

It is usually thought of as a children’s condition, but it actually affects more adults. It is more common in men than women. Continue reading “CHILDHOOD CANCER”


The term “Cancer Survivor” commonly refers to someone who has a history of cancer. “Co-Survivor” is a term sometimes used to describe a person who has cared for a friend or loved one with cancer.





The word “Survivor” does not appeal to all people who have a history of cancer. The reasons for this vary. For instance, they may simply identify more with being “a person who has had cancer,” or perhaps they are dealing with cancer every day and do not think of themselves as Survivors, but more as someone who is “living with cancer.”

Continue reading “CANCER SURVIVORSHIP”

Heroes Day: National Cancer Survivors Day

NATIONAL CANCER SURVIVORS DAY 2018 “Life after a Cancer Diagnosis is a Reality”

Lakeshore Cancer Center is the foremost Cancer clinic in Nigeria sorely dedicated to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and cancer education/awareness and support.

Part of our mission has been to dispel the myth and misconception that a cancer diagnosis is a death sentence, mainly through education and counseling of patients, caregivers, fellow health practitioners and the general public.

The National Cancer Survivors Day was first coined in 1987 with the very first event taking place in 1988.

It is usually marked on the first Sunday of June and in 2018 this will be on the 3rd of June.

We marked our own Heroes Day, Saturday, June 3, 2018.

We started with Aerobics.

We had games winners were presented with prizes 🏆

Survivors shared their story.

We all signed the “Kick Cancer” board.

We took photos and made new friends.

Special thanks to all our friends, partners and participating organizations – Zenith Bank, FCMB, COPE Breast Cancer, Dorcas Cancer Foundation, What Cancer and so many others.

You can get in touch with us on 0809 971 5000.

How to Examine your Testes to Prevent Testicular Cancer

Doctors in Lakeshore Cancer Center Teach how to carry out Testicular Examination so as to prevent Testicular Cancer.

Watch the video below.

If you need help with checking we can help.

Remember to take advantage of our Free Testicular Examination and Blood Pressure Check Offer.

Call 0809 971 5000 or send us a direct message on Instagram.com/lcccares, Facebook.com/lcccares

Lakeshore Health Fair

Lakeshore Cancer Center held a health fair on Saturday, March 3rd 2018 at Muri Okunola Park from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm.

This was to commemorate the World Cancer Day which had been marked worldwide on the 4th of February 2018. We traditionally mark this day in some way since the inception of the clinic in 2014. However this year 2018, we decided to expand by including other health providers in view of the risk factors of cancer and non-communicable diseases in general, Thus providing a thorough and holistic health check of interest to all attendees.

Continue reading “Lakeshore Health Fair”

World AIDS Day : AIDS and Cancer

World AIDS Day takes place on the 1st of December each year. It’s an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), to show support for people living with HIV, and to commemorate those who have died from an AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)-related illness. Founded in 1988, World AIDS Day was the first ever global health day.

Continue reading “World AIDS Day : AIDS and Cancer”


Early cancer diagnosis

Cancer, a public health problem affects all categories of people all over the world with
Nigerians not an exception. It’s a term used to describe a large group of diseases characterized
by abnormal growth of cells beyond their usual boundaries. Cancer cells can invade adjoining
parts of the body and also spread to other organs.