Testicular Cancer

What Is Testicular Cancer?
Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancerous and spread to other parts of the body.

What is Testicular Cancer? Cancer that starts in the testicles is called Testicular Cancer.

To understand this cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the testicles.
Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis that produces sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.
Compared with other types of cancer, Testicular Cancer is rare. But is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35.

What are Testicles?
Testicles (also called testes; a single testicle is called a testis) are part of the male reproductive system. The 2 organs are each normally a little smaller than a golf ball in adult males. They’re held within a sac of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum hangs under the base of the penis.

Testicles have 2 main functions:
 They make male hormones (androgens) such as testosterone.
 They make sperm, the male cells needed to fertilize a female egg cell to start a pregnancy. Sperm cells are made in long, thread-like tubes inside the testicles called
Seminiferous tubules.

Types of Testicular cancer:
The testicles are made up of many types of cells, each of which can develop into one or more types of cancer. It’s important to know the type of cell the cancer started in and what kind of cancer it is because they differ in how they’re treated and in their prognosis (outlook).

Doctors can tell what type of testicular cancer you have by looking at the cells under a microscope.

Germ cell tumors: More than 90% of cancers of the testicle start in cells known as germ cells.
These are the cells that make sperm. The main types of germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the testicles are seminomas and non-seminomas.

A.) Seminomas: Seminomas tend to grow and spread more slowly than non-seminomas. The 2 main sub-types of these tumors are classical (or typical) seminomas and
spermatocytic seminomas.

I.) Classical seminoma: More than 95% of seminomas are classical. These usually
occur in men between 25 and 45.
II.) Spermatocytic seminoma: This rare type of seminoma tends to occur in older men.
(The average age is about 65.) Spermatocytic tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less likely to spread to other parts of the body than classical seminomas.

Some seminomas can increase blood levels of a protein called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG can be checked with a simple blood test and is considered a tumor marker for certain types of testicular cancer.

B.) Non-seminomas: These types of germ cell tumors usually occur in men between their late teens and early 30s. The 4 main types of non-seminoma tumors are embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:
 A lump or enlargement in either testicle,
 A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum,
 A dull ache in the abdomen or groin,
 A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum,
 Pain or discomfort in a testicle or scrotum,
 Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts and,
 Back pain.

Risk factors for Testicular Cancer include:
 Family history of the disease, and previous history of testicular cancer.
 An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism): The testes usually descend into the scrotum
before birth, in cases where they don’t, those men with undescended testes are at a
greater risk of testicular cancer than men whose testes descended normally.
 Abnormal testicle development: There are conditions that can result in the abnormal
development of the testicles such as Klinefelter syndrome and such conditions may
increase your risk of testicular cancer.
 Age: Testicular cancer is more common among men aged between of 13-35 years.
 Race: Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men.

Treatment for Testicular Cancer:
The three basic types of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Surgery is performed by Urologists; radiation therapy is administered by Radiation Oncologists; and chemotherapy is the work of Medical Oncologists. In most patients with testicular cancer, the disease is cured readily with minimal long-term morbidity. While treatment success depends on
the stage, the average survival rate after five years is around 95%, and stage 1 cancer cases, if monitored properly, have essentially a 100% survival rate.
Treatment Clinical trials have also refined doctors’ approaches to treating these cancers. For example, studies have found factors that help predict which patients have a particularly good prognosis and may not need lymph node surgery or radiation therapy.

Studies also have found unfavorable prognostic factors that suggest certain patients may benefit from more intense treatment. New drugs and new drug combinations are being tested for patients with testicular
cancer that comes back or doesn’t respond to treatment. And high-dose chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant is being studied in men who have tumors with a poor prognosis. Other studies are using robotic-assisted surgery to remove lymph nodes after chemotherapy. It appears to be a safe option instead of standard “open” surgery, but more research is needed to show this and to see if there are other benefits.

References:
Boccellino M, Vanacore D, Zappavigna S, et al. Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic
factors. Oncotarget. 2017;8(61):104654-104663. Loveday C, Litchfield K, Levy M, et al.
Validation of loci at 2q14.2 and 15q21.3 as risk factors for testicular cancer. Oncotarget.
2017;9(16):12630-12638. Singh A, Chatterjee S, Bansal P, Bansal A, Rawal S. Robot-assisted
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Feasibility and outcome in postchemotherapy residual
mass in testicular cancer. Indian J Urol. 2017;33(4):304-309. Tselos A, Moris D, Tsilimigras DI,
et al. Robot-Assisted Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy in Testicular Cancer Treatment: A
Systematic Review. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2018 Feb 23. Last Medical Review: May
17, 2018 Last Revised: May 17, 2018
Hyperlinks:
1.) www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/what-is-cancer.html
2.) www.cancer.org/cancer/testicular-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/howdiagnosed.html
3.)www.cancer.org/treatment/survivorship-during-and-after-
treatment/understandingrecurrence.html
4.) www.cancer.org/cancer/non-hodgkin-lymphoma.html
5.) www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children.html

Cancer Myths, Misconceptions and Facts

Breast Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a woman either has a spontaneous abortion late in her pregnancy or a stillbirth, she can develop breast cancer, because the milk production meant for the child can spoil and cause cancer in the breast.

The Facts: More breast milk is made whenever milk is removed from the breast. The more the baby feeds, the more the milk the mother will make. In the absence of demand from the baby, the mother’s milk supply eventually dries up. Moreover, human breast milk is always fresh and cannot spoil in the breast.

Misconception #2: If you wear black brassieres often, you are more likely to get breast cancer because the black-coloured underwear will radiate more heat than other lightly-coloured underwear.

The Facts: There is no scientific evidence to suggest that wearing brassieres -black or not – can lead to the development of breast cancer. The study that investigated the link between wearing a brassiere and breast cancer, showed no real difference in risk between women who wore a brassiere and women who didn’t wear a brassiere.

Misconception #3: Only women can get breast cancer.

The Facts: Although breast cancer is most common in women, it also occurs in men too. Men also have small breast tissue and can develop cancer but unlike women they tend to delay going to the doctor until they have severe symptoms.

Misconception #4: When someone punches you in the breast, you can develop breast cancer in the injured breast.

The Facts: An injury to the breast/chest area will not cause breast cancer, however, depending on the severity of the injury, swelling and discoloration may occur, and in some cases scar tissue in the breast is formed, when the body naturally repairs the damaged fatty breast tissue.


Misconception #5: Women that store their money and cell phones in their brassieres, can develop breast cancer later on.

The Facts: There is not enough information or data available to establish a relationship between putting one’s phone in contact with the breasts for long periods and developing breast cancer.

Misconception #6: Men sucking and fondling women’s breasts helps prevent breast cancer.

The Facts: There is no scientific evidence to indicate that sucking, squeezing or fondling a woman’s breasts could prevent breast lumps or breast cancer. However, in some cases, men are able to help detect lumps in their partner’s breasts at an early stage through regular sucking and fondling of the breasts.  

Misconception #7: When women place ants on the breasts to “cause growth,” they can develop breast cancer later on.

The Facts: This is simply not true. Many factors can increase one’s risk of developing breast cancer, such as aging, being overweight, having a family history of the disease, among others, but ant-bites are not one of them. Also, there is no evidence that suggests that placing ants on the breast accelerates breast growth in females; we know that the rate of breast growth has more to do with age, genetics and weight than any other thing.

Misconception #8: Using antiperspirant deodorants can increase your risk of developing breast cancer.

The Facts: There is no evidence to suggest that using anti-perspirant deodorants can increase one’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Lung Cancer:

Misconception #1: Only smoking can cause lung cancer.

The Facts: Tobacco smoking is by far the leading cause of lung cancer; it is responsible for about 80% of lung cancer deaths. However, lung cancer can also occur in non-smokers when they are exposed to radon, second-hand smoke, air pollution, asbestos, diesel exhaust fumes and other air pollutants and when they have certain DNA mutations that predispose them to lung cancer. Research shows that either active or passive smoking increases ones risk of having any kind of cancer generally.

Misconception #2: If you smoke and then follow it up with alcohol, it flushes out the harmful effects of tobacco thus reducing your risk of lung cancer.

The Facts: Alcohol cannot flush out the effects of tobacco on the lungs. In fact, this combination – consuming alcohol on a daily basis and smoking – can further increase the risk of cancers in the aero-digestive tract- the lips, mouth, larynx, pharynx, throat, oesophagus and colon.

Prostate Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a man is not sexually active in his younger years, when they turn 40, they develop prostate cancer because their prostate gland shrinks.

The Facts: This is not true. Researchers speculate that men who have sex more often “may be more likely to acquire a sexually transmitted disease, which may infect the prostate, cause inflammation and other damage, and increase the risk of prostate cancer.” However, based on two large well-conducted studies, men who reported 21 or more ejaculations per month had one-fourth the risk of prostate cancer compared with men reporting fewer ejaculations per month at all ages. It is important to note though that similar studies did not reach the same conclusions.

Skin Cancer:

Misconception #1: Dark-skinned (black) people cannot develop skin cancer.

The Facts: Although black people or people of colour are less susceptible to UV damage due to greater amounts of melanin (a protective pigment that gives our skin, hair and eyes colour) that dark skin produces, they can still develop skin cancer. Dangerous skin cancers such as the fast moving and highly virulent acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and a fast-spreading form of squamous cell carcinoma are more common among darker-skinned people. Although skin cancer is much more common among lighter-skinned people, it tends to be deadlier among people of colour.

Cervical Cancer:

Misconception #1: When a lady has multiple sexual partners, she will most likely develop cervical cancer later on in life.

The Facts: It is indeed true that the sexually transmitted virus, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99% of cervical cancer cases in women and having multiple sexual partners increases the risk of contracting HPV due to greater exposure to the virus. However, a woman can protect herself from the virus by taking the HPV vaccine (between the ages of 9 to 26 years) and also through the practice of safe sex; using condoms and other protective equipment during oral sex. Also, from the age of 21, women are advised to do a cervical cytology test (the liquid-based cytology test is most accurate) every 3 years, to detect any pre-cancerous changes in the cervix.

Some more general misconceptions about cancer include:

Misconception #1: Cancer only affects older people.

The Facts: The risk of developing cancer does increase with age due to age-related DNA changes that make normal cells more susceptible to turning into cancer cells. Thus, cancer is more common in people over the age of 50 years. However, for every 100 people diagnosed with cancer, 10 people will fall between the ages of 25 and 49 and 1 person will be under the age of 24, so anybody can develop cancer. At whatever age, living more healthily can help stack the odds against cancer.

Misconception #2: Cancer is caused by bad diets and eating well guarantees a cancer-free life. Healthy people cannot develop cancer.

The Facts: While maintaining a healthy lifestyle through healthy eating and regular exercise, can general reduce the risk of cancer, other factors such as genetic predisposition can further increase the risk of cancer even in the presence of a healthy lifestyle.

Misconception #3: Cancer makes people bald/If your hair is falling out it means you have cancer.

The Facts: One of the side effects of some cancer chemotherapy treatments is hair loss. However, hair loss is a side effect of chemotherapy and not the disease itself.

Also, here are some out-of-scope misconceptions that are not only untrue but also completely baseless and lacking in scientific evidence:

  • Apple juice cause cancer: There is no direct link between apple juice consumption and developing cancer. However, since apple juice has a high sugar content, like other sugary drinks, it should be consumed in moderation to maintain good health.
  • Cancer is communicable: Cancer is a NOT contagious. It might seem like cancer might happen more often in certain families, but this does not mean that the family members spread cancer to each other. It can be due to several reasons; for one, cancer-causing genes can be passed down through familial inheritance, and another reason is that families might sometimes share a similar unhealthy lifestyle or they might be exposed to the same cancer-causing agents in their environment such as tobacco smoke and therefore might be more predisposed to having cancer in the family.
  • Rich people are predisposed to having cancer because they use dryers to dry their hands after washing: This misconception is completely unfounded. There is no link between the use of hand dryers and developing cancer. Hand dryers are designed to blow hot or cool air to dry one’s hands after washing them.
  • Introverts are more likely to develop cancer than extroverts: There is no evidence for this.  
  • “Everything” causes cancer: “Everything” does not cause cancer, however, factors such as genetic predisposition, low physical activity, unhealthy diets, smoking, exposure to radiation and carcinogenic environmental pollutants, and aging can increase one’s risk for developing cancer.
  • Apricot kernels can prevent and treat cancer: Apricot seeds contain a bioactive compound, amygdalin whose synthetic version of amygdalin, gained popularity in the 1970s as a cancer treatment but because of a lack of clinical research evidence that laetrile is effective against cancer or can be used safely, it has not been approved as a treatment for cancer.
  • Moringa seeds, aloe-Vera and beetroot can cure cancer: All these natural plants have bioactive compounds that have anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties, however there is not enough research on their ability to cure cancer.

A few others are:

  • Ketogenic diets can cure cancer: A Ketogenic diet is a low-carb and high fat diet which encourages a process known as ketosis where the body burns fat to make energy instead of sugar thus releasing ketones into the body. Many people believe that sugar is the main source of fuel which feeds cancer, however, ketogenic diets are high fat so they can lead to obesity which is a risk factor for cancer. Ketogenic diet has repeatedly been shown NOT to cure cancer as a monotherapy in human.  However, healthy diet, screening and early detection can help tackle cancer.
  • Putting your laptop on your lap for prolonged periods causes cancer: It may cause some level of exposure to EMFs (Electric and Magnetic Fields), but it is definitely not a risk factor for cancer. Heat from the laptop, however, can burnt the skin thigh.
  • If you leave a bottle of water in your car overnight and you drink it the next day, you can increase your risk of developing cancer: There is no evidence to suggest that drinking plastic bottled water left in a hot car can increase one’s risk of developing cancer. However, researchers advise against drinking plastic bottled water left in a hot car because there has been some evidence to suggest that hot temperatures of cars could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled water.

Thanks for reading. We are available to talk to you on
08099715000

Heroes Day: National Cancer Survivors Day

NATIONAL CANCER SURVIVORS DAY 2018 “Life after a Cancer Diagnosis is a Reality”

Lakeshore Cancer Center is the foremost Cancer clinic in Nigeria sorely dedicated to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and cancer education/awareness and support.

Part of our mission has been to dispel the myth and misconception that a cancer diagnosis is a death sentence, mainly through education and counseling of patients, caregivers, fellow health practitioners and the general public.

The National Cancer Survivors Day was first coined in 1987 with the very first event taking place in 1988.

It is usually marked on the first Sunday of June and in 2018 this will be on the 3rd of June.

We marked our own Heroes Day, Saturday, June 3, 2018.

We started with Aerobics.

We had games winners were presented with prizes 🏆

Survivors shared their story.

We all signed the “Kick Cancer” board.

We took photos and made new friends.

Special thanks to all our friends, partners and participating organizations – Zenith Bank, FCMB, COPE Breast Cancer, Dorcas Cancer Foundation, What Cancer and so many others.

You can get in touch with us on 0809 971 5000.

How to Examine your Testes to Prevent Testicular Cancer

Doctors in Lakeshore Cancer Center Teach how to carry out Testicular Examination so as to prevent Testicular Cancer.

Watch the video below.

If you need help with checking we can help.

Remember to take advantage of our Free Testicular Examination and Blood Pressure Check Offer.

Call 0809 971 5000 or send us a direct message on Instagram.com/lcccares, Facebook.com/lcccares

Lakeshore Health Fair

Lakeshore Cancer Center held a health fair on Saturday, March 3rd 2018 at Muri Okunola Park from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm.

This was to commemorate the World Cancer Day which had been marked worldwide on the 4th of February 2018. We traditionally mark this day in some way since the inception of the clinic in 2014. However this year 2018, we decided to expand by including other health providers in view of the risk factors of cancer and non-communicable diseases in general, Thus providing a thorough and holistic health check of interest to all attendees.

Continue reading “Lakeshore Health Fair”

World AIDS Day : AIDS and Cancer

World AIDS Day takes place on the 1st of December each year. It’s an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), to show support for people living with HIV, and to commemorate those who have died from an AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)-related illness. Founded in 1988, World AIDS Day was the first ever global health day.

Continue reading “World AIDS Day : AIDS and Cancer”

IT’S NOT TRUE!!!

…Debunking breast cancer myths and misconceptions.

In today’s society of information overload, there’s a whole lot being said about breast cancer that just isn’t true. Knowledge, they say, is power hence our resolve to separate the wheat from the chaff by debunking, with facts, some of these myths and misconceptions associated with breast cancer.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that only women with a family history of breast cancer are at risk.

*Only about 10% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have a family history of this disease.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that the type of bra you wear or how tight it is increases your risk of getting breast cancer.

*These claims have been widely debunked as unscientific.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that all breast lumps are cancerous.

*So don’t panic! About 80% of lumps in women’s breasts are benign however;women are advised to report all changes to their Doctor.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that Breast implants can raise your cancer risk.

*Although Silicone implants may cause formation of scar tissue in the breast, studies have shown that they do not increase your breast cancer risk.However, standard mammograms don’t always work as well on these women, so additional X-rays are sometimes needed to examine breast tissue properly.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that antiperspirants cause cancer.

*Research has focused on Parabens, a preservative found in some antiperspirants, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical products. This is because it was found in a sample of cancerous tissues taken from the breast. However since the study did not analyze healthy breast tissue and clearly did not demonstrate that parabens are found only in cancerous breast tissue, it’s been ruled inconclusive. Furthermore, they did not identify the source of the parabens and could not establish that its build up was exclusiely due to use of antiperspirants. Bottom line? There’s reason to be mindful but not paranoid. If it helps you rest easy, use paraben-free products.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that women with small breasts have a lesser chance of getting breast cancer.

*There’s just no connection between breast size and breast cancer risk however, very large breasts may be more difficult to examine and even mammograms and MRI more difficult to conduct.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that annual mammograms expose you to so much radiation that they increase your risk of cancer.

*While it’s true that radiation is used in mammography, the amount is so small that any associated risks are tiny when compared to its huge preventive benefits.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that men don’t have Breast cancer.

*Quite the contrary, each year it is estimated that approximately 2,190 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 410 will die. While this percentage is still small, men should also check themselves periodically by doing a breast self-exam while in the shower and reporting any changes to their physicians.

Breast cancer in men is usually detected as a hard lump underneath the nipple and areola.  Men carry a higher mortality than women do, primarily because awareness among men is less and they are less likely to assume a lump is breast cancer, which can cause a delay in seeking treatment.

 

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that using mobile phones or microwaves increase your breast cancer risk.

There’s no good evidence to suggest that exposure to ‘non-ionizing radiation’, such as that from mobile phones or microwaves has any effect on your risk of developing breast cancer.

The confusion behind these rumors may be linked to the fact that another type of radiation, known as ‘ionizing radiation’ can increase the risk of many cancers, including breast cancer, but it’s still dependent on the amount you’re exposed to.

  1. IT’S NOT TRUE that a lump is the only sign of breast cancer.

*Other signs to look out for includeswelling; skin irritation or dimpling; breast or nipple pain; nipple retraction (turning inward); redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin; or a discharge other than breast milk. Breast cancer can cause lymph node swelling in the armpit before a tumor in the breast is large enough to be felt. Luckily, a mammogram may pick up breast cancer before symptoms begin to manifest.

Dr. Ugonna .N. Ajoku.

 

 

 

Rita Dominic & BK Unique Hair Inc visited Lakeshore Cancer Centre & held an Exclusive Dinner with Female Cancer Survivors in its MyHairMyCrown Campaign Bella Naija

Following the official launch and unveiling of Rita Dominic as brand ambassador in November 2016, BK unique Hair Inc has introduced an initiative called “MyHairMyCrown” campaign in February 2017. BK unique hair Inc teamed up with Lakeshore Cancer Centre for this campaign which aims to support and encourages female survivors.

Brand Ambassador & A List Nollywood actress Rita Dominic was highly instrumental in making this a reality. On Monday Feb 20th, 2017, Rita and the BK Unique hair team visited Lakeshore cancer center. She was given a warm welcome with a tour of the facility, met with members of staff as well as some of the patients. She also got the opportunity to have a chat with some of the survivors who shared their experiences.

A raffle was conducted at Lakeshore cancer center, where 8 lucky ladies emerged winners of the maiden edition of My Hair My Crown Campaign.  They were awarded custom made, 100% human hair wigs courtesy of BK unique hair. On Saturday Feb 25th 2017, the winners were treated to full makeovers, as well as dinner with Rita Dominic at the prestigious Eko Hotel.

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Experts advocate national screening programme to reduce cancer in Nigeria

Medical experts have urged the Federal Government to come up with a national screening scheme for cancer to address the rising cases of the disease in the country.

A general practitioner, who is Head of Strategy, Development and Outreach at Lakeshore Cancer Centre in Lagos, Oge Ilegbune, while lamenting over the prevalent of cancer in Nigeria at an awareness campaign organised by the company urged government and individuals to find sustainable solutions that would prioritise prevention of the dieses.

Expectations are that the screening will lead to early detention and help the country to come down hard on widespread of cancer in the country thereby, reducing yearly loss to the life threatening disease.

 

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worldcancerday2017

World Cancer Day is celebrated worldwide annually and 2017 is no different. Lakeshore Cancer Center is at the forefront of the drive to change the dismal cancer statistics with educative and awareness measures. This year the emphasis was on collaborating with likeminded individuals to carry out cancer Screening and preventive measures activities. This was done “At home” in collaboration with Dennis Ashley Wellness Clinic and PathCare Laboratories and supported by Landmark Africa office/ event center and Shoprite.

Pictures from Event

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Videos from Event